Voluntary Agreement Between Two Parties

Because of its carcinogenic potential and low exposure limits, acrylamide is considered a potential health hazard (JECFA, 2005). For this reason, in many countries, food authorities have asked food producers to take steps to limit the formation of acrylamide in their products (Amrein, Andres, Escher, Amado, 2007). In 2002, the German concept of minimisation of acrylamide was introduced by the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL). The concept was based on a voluntary agreement between the BVL, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), federal authorities and industry stakeholders. The aim of the concept of minimisation is to gradually reduce the acrylamide content of foodstuffs by avoiding training. This requires the development of reduction methods that reduce the acrylamide content of foods without altering the properties of food (Gobel-Kliemant, 2007). Perhaps the main influences on the paths and articulation in higher education are vast economic, technological and social changes. Increased national wealth allows governments to expand higher education and establish institutions in small population centres, greatly expanding access. The increase in personal and family wealth gives people and their children the resources and above all the desire to pursue a higher education.

Improved and reduced transportation and communication costs make it much easier for students to study in institutions far from home. These are some of the reasons for the significant expansion of transnational higher education over the past two decades, which has been at the origin of the partnership agreements mentioned above, as well as the many paths and articulation agreements developed between the institutions of different countries. Distance education or resource education techniques and, more recently, the significant expansion of information and communication technologies have supported many new pathways and joints. This indicates that future developments in curricula and articulation in higher education are likely to be as much influenced as by these general economic, technological and social developments, as well as by measures specifically focused on pathways and articulation in higher education. Empirical studies on voluntary respect are relatively new and are gradually multiplying and fuelling theoretical discussions. Some documents, such as Arora and Cason (1995), examine the selection of companies that participate in voluntary, state-subsidized overcomponation programs, such as 33/50, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. They find that companies that emit high toxic emissions are more likely to participate in this program.